Capsule endoscopy – new generation of gastrointestinal tract research which allows diagnosing bowel areas, inaccessible to traditional methods of gastro and colonoscopy. Method is non-invasive and painless. The advantage of capsule endoscopy is atraumatic, the possibility of carrying out research without anesthetic maintenance and painless for the patients, in contrast to other methods of gastrointestinal research.
Capsule endoscopy allows the doctor to examine the three regions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum). There are modifications capsules for detailed examination of the esophagus and colon.
Capsule endoscopy is used in our clinic since 2013. Were conducted 120 video capsule examinations. In our examinations, we used the capsules SB2, SB3, COLON, PATENCY, manufactured by Given Imaging Ltd (Israel).
As an endoscope is used videocapsule. Its size is like a standard capsule (it is easily swallowed) and capsule transmits GI tract images.
The capsule is activated as soon as it is got out of package. Then the patient swallows the capsule, which contains a miniature video camera, processor and power supply.
The capsule moves through the digestive tract due to peristalsis. High-quality images of the gastrointestinal tract are obtained thanks to the sensitive photomatrixes and the optimum frequency of pictures in seconds that the camera produced. The recording apparatus has a high reliability and stability of signal receiving that comes from capsule. The movement of the capsule and the patient's actions are controlled by a special program that built-in recorder unit, which is hung on the patient's belt. After the examination a doctor looks at pictures on the computer and sends the patient to a gastroenterologist with results of the examination. The capsule will come out naturally. The examination takes 7-8 hours, but the patient may not be at hospital – the device does not prevent him/her from living as usual.
Videocapsule is used disposable, completely harmless for the patient and excreted from the body naturally.
- Direct visualization of the intestinal mucosa
- Noninvasive examination (there is no risk of perforation and other complication like in standard endoscopy)
- There is no need of sedation
- There is no need of air insufflations
- There is no risk of irradiation
- Minimal discomfort
- Doesn’t require a cost of storing, processing, as a standard endoscopic equipment
- Possibility of intestine’s spatial modeling
- Affordable price in Minsk
- If unable to perform total colonoscopy (from 5% to 10%, because of complex anatomy, massive abdominal operations amnesis, discomfort and etc.)
- With severe concomitant cardiac pathology
- Defect of coagulation and hemorrhagic syndrome
- With high anesthetic risk
- In order to control a course of Crohn’s disease and Inflammatory bowel disease
- For elderly persons
- Children at the age of 2 or older
Nevertheless, this technique is not suitable for everyone. It cannot be used to people with intestinal obstruction or may have it. In such cases is made a test examination with a special soluble capsule.
Before examination a patient must consult with doctor to provide him necessary information about gastrointestinal tract disease.
- The inability to take a biopsy
- The inability of medical manipulations
- The inability of bowel contents aspiration
- Incomplete examination due to the lack of training, decrement of gastric and bowel motor activity
- The risk of a long delay of a capsule in the stomach
Lyah Oleg Mihailovich
Endoscopist of higher category, (head of department) endoscopic department. He is a freelance expert of Minsk City Executive Committee. Has published more than 70 scientific works.
Leskovskaya Svetlana Victorovna
Endoscopist of the first category. She is the author of 4 scientific works.
For the best results of capsule endoscopy is necessary to follow these instruction strictly and carefully
One day before PillCam examination ®:
- From the morning patient should have strict liquid diet: fruit juice, chicken broth, jelly, coffee, tea and etc.
- Patient shouldn’t drink anything that have red, purple, orange color, milk, cream or milk products
- Solid food is not allowed, because this could jeopardize the quality of the results
- Your doctor give you recommendations for bowel preparation
- Also should not take iron supplements for 5 days before the procedure
- Do not take antacids within 24 hours before the procedure
Day of PillCam ® endoscopy:
- If you take cardiac or hypertensive drugs, it’s necessary to take them 2 hours before or after swallowing a capsule
- If you have diabetes and taking insulin, you have to speak with doctor, who prescribed to take insulin, about the insulin dose lowering in the day of procedure
- It is recommended that outer clothing were made of thin materials (such as T-shirts), length – reaching hips.
- Clothing should be comfortable, free, consisting of 2 pieces of clothing and underwear
- Do not use lotion or powder on the abdomen area of the examination day
- Arrive to the doctor on time
After ingesting the PillCam ® capsule:
- You may drink transparent liquid, 2 hours after PillCam ® It includes fruit juices, broth, jelly, tea, etc.It is prohibited to drink anything that have red, purple, orange color, milk, cream or milk products.
- Once the research is completed, you can return to your normal nutrition (8 hours after PillCam ® swallowing).
- Check the blue flashing data logger every 15 minutes to make sure that it is blinking twice per second. If it stops blinking or changes color, note the time and contact your doctor.
- Avoid strong electromagnetic fields.
- Stay away from direct sunlight.
- Do not disconnect the equipment at the time of the examination, because it threatens the complete removal of data records.
- Take good care of the recording device. Avoid sudden movements and bumps of the recorder.
A patient may receive recommendations and instructions about stomach examination or other organs of digestive tract by capsule endoscopy from a specialist doctor during the first consultation.